# Iowa Core Math Number and Quantity Framework

## Standards

Standard Description
N-RN.A.1 Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 5^1/3 to be the cube root of 5 because we want (5^1/3)^ 3 = 5^(1/3)^3 to hold, so (5^1/3)^ 3 must equal 5. Lessons
N-RN.A.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents. Lessons
N-RN.B.3 Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational. Lessons
N-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays Lessons
N-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling Lessons
N-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities Lessons
IA.3 Understand, analyze, apply, and evaluate some common voting and analysis methods in addition to majority and plurality, such as runoff, approval, the so-called instant-runoff voting (IRV) method, the Borda method and the Condorcet method Lessons
IA.4 (+) Describe the role of mathematics in information processing, particularly with respect to the Internet. ( Lessons
IA.5 (+) Understand and apply elementary set theory and logic as used in simple Internet searches. Lessons
IA.6 (+) Understand and apply basic number theory, including modular arithmetic, for example, as used in keeping information secure through public-key cryptography. Lessons
N-CN.A.1 Know there is a complex number i such that i 2 = –1, and every complex number has the form a + bi with a and b real Lessons
N-CN.A.2 Use the relation i 2 = –1 and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties to add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers. Lessons
N-CN.A.3 (+) Find the conjugate of a complex number; use conjugates to find moduli and quotients of complex numbers. Lessons
N-CN.B.4 (+) Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number Lessons
NCN.B.5 (+) Represent addition, subtraction, multiplication, and conjugation of complex numbers geometrically on the complex plane; use properties of this representation for computation. For example, (–1 + √3 i)3 = 8 because (–1 + √3 i) has modulus 2 and argument 120° Lessons
N-CN.B.6 (+) Calculate the distance between numbers in the complex plane as the modulus of the difference, and the midpoint of a segment as the average of the numbers at its endpoints Lessons
N-CN.C.7 Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions Lessons
N-CN.C.8 (+) Extend polynomial identities to the complex numbers. For example, rewrite x2 + 4 as (x + 2i)(x – 2i) Lessons
N-CN.C.9 (+) Know the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; show that it is true for quadratic polynomials. Lessons
N-VM.A.1 (+) Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes (e.g., v, |v|, ||v||, v). Lessons
N-VM.A.2 (+) Find the components of a vector by subtracting the coordinates of an initial point from the coordinates of a terminal point Lessons
N-VM.A.3 (+) Solve problems involving velocity and other quantities that can be represented by vectors Lessons
N-VM.B.4.A (+) Add vectors end-to-end, component-wise, and by the parallelogram rule. Understand that the magnitude of a sum of two vectors is typically not the sum of the magnitudes Lessons
N-VM.B.4.B (+) Given two vectors in magnitude and direction form, determine the magnitude and direction of their sum. Lessons
N-VM.B.4.C (+) Understand vector subtraction v – w as v + (–w), where –w is the additive inverse of w, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction. Represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order, and perform vector subtraction component-wise. Lessons
N-VM.B.5.A (+) Represent scalar multiplication graphically by scaling vectors and possibly reversing their direction; perform scalar multiplication component-wise, e.g., as c(vx, vy) = (cvx, cvy) Lessons
N-VM.B.5.B (+) Compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple cv using ||cv|| = |c|v. Compute the direction of cv knowing that when |c|v ≠ 0, the direction of cv is either along v (for c > 0) or against v (for c < 0) Lessons
N-VM.C.6 (+) Use matrices to represent and manipulate data, e.g., to represent payoffs or incidence relationships in a network. Lessons
N-VM.C.7 (+) Multiply matrices by scalars to produce new matrices, e.g., as when all of the payoffs in a game are doubled Lessons
N-VM.C.8 (+) Add, subtract, and multiply matrices of appropriate dimensions Lessons
N-VM.C.9 (+) Understand that, unlike multiplication of numbers, matrix multiplication for square matrices is not a commutative operation, but still satisfies the associative and distributive properties Lessons
N-VM.C.10 (+) Understand that the zero and identity matrices play a role in matrix addition and multiplication similar to the role of 0 and 1 in the real numbers. The determinant of a square matrix is nonzero if and only if the matrix has a multiplicative inverse Lessons
N-VM.C.11 (+) Multiply a vector (regarded as a matrix with one column) by a matrix of suitable dimensions to produce another vector. Work with matrices as transformations of vectors Lessons
N-VM.C.12 (+) Work with 2 × 2 matrices as transformations of the plane, and interpret the absolute value of the determinant in terms of area Lessons
N-RN.A.1 Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 5^1/3 to be the cube root of 5 because we want (5^1/3)^ 3 = 5^(1/3)^3 to hold, so (5^1/3)^ 3 must equal 5. Lessons
N-RN.A.2 Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents. Lessons
N-RN.B.3 Explain why the sum or product of two rational numbers is rational; that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is irrational; and that the product of a nonzero rational number and an irrational number is irrational. Lessons
N-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays Lessons
N-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling Lessons
N-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities Lessons
IA.3 Understand, analyze, apply, and evaluate some common voting and analysis methods in addition to majority and plurality, such as runoff, approval, the so-called instant-runoff voting (IRV) method, the Borda method and the Condorcet method Lessons
IA.4 (+) Describe the role of mathematics in information processing, particularly with respect to the Internet. ( Lessons
IA.5 (+) Understand and apply elementary set theory and logic as used in simple Internet searches. Lessons
IA.6 (+) Understand and apply basic number theory, including modular arithmetic, for example, as used in keeping information secure through public-key cryptography. Lessons
N-CN.A.1 Know there is a complex number i such that i 2 = –1, and every complex number has the form a + bi with a and b real Lessons
N-CN.A.2 Use the relation i 2 = –1 and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties to add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers. Lessons
N-CN.A.3 (+) Find the conjugate of a complex number; use conjugates to find moduli and quotients of complex numbers. Lessons
N-CN.B.4 (+) Represent complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form (including real and imaginary numbers), and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number Lessons
NCN.B.5 (+) Represent addition, subtraction, multiplication, and conjugation of complex numbers geometrically on the complex plane; use properties of this representation for computation. For example, (–1 + √3 i)3 = 8 because (–1 + √3 i) has modulus 2 and argument 120° Lessons
N-CN.B.6 (+) Calculate the distance between numbers in the complex plane as the modulus of the difference, and the midpoint of a segment as the average of the numbers at its endpoints Lessons
N-CN.C.7 Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions Lessons
N-CN.C.8 (+) Extend polynomial identities to the complex numbers. For example, rewrite x2 + 4 as (x + 2i)(x – 2i) Lessons
N-CN.C.9 (+) Know the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; show that it is true for quadratic polynomials. Lessons
N-VM.A.1 (+) Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes (e.g., v, |v|, ||v||, v). Lessons
N-VM.A.2 (+) Find the components of a vector by subtracting the coordinates of an initial point from the coordinates of a terminal point Lessons
N-VM.A.3 (+) Solve problems involving velocity and other quantities that can be represented by vectors Lessons
N-VM.B.4.A (+) Add vectors end-to-end, component-wise, and by the parallelogram rule. Understand that the magnitude of a sum of two vectors is typically not the sum of the magnitudes Lessons
N-VM.B.4.B (+) Given two vectors in magnitude and direction form, determine the magnitude and direction of their sum. Lessons
N-VM.B.4.C (+) Understand vector subtraction v – w as v + (–w), where –w is the additive inverse of w, with the same magnitude as w and pointing in the opposite direction. Represent vector subtraction graphically by connecting the tips in the appropriate order, and perform vector subtraction component-wise. Lessons
N-VM.B.5.A (+) Represent scalar multiplication graphically by scaling vectors and possibly reversing their direction; perform scalar multiplication component-wise, e.g., as c(vx, vy) = (cvx, cvy) Lessons
N-VM.B.5.B (+) Compute the magnitude of a scalar multiple cv using ||cv|| = |c|v. Compute the direction of cv knowing that when |c|v ≠ 0, the direction of cv is either along v (for c > 0) or against v (for c < 0) Lessons
N-VM.C.6 (+) Use matrices to represent and manipulate data, e.g., to represent payoffs or incidence relationships in a network. Lessons
N-VM.C.7 (+) Multiply matrices by scalars to produce new matrices, e.g., as when all of the payoffs in a game are doubled Lessons
N-VM.C.8 (+) Add, subtract, and multiply matrices of appropriate dimensions Lessons
N-VM.C.9 (+) Understand that, unlike multiplication of numbers, matrix multiplication for square matrices is not a commutative operation, but still satisfies the associative and distributive properties Lessons
N-VM.C.10 (+) Understand that the zero and identity matrices play a role in matrix addition and multiplication similar to the role of 0 and 1 in the real numbers. The determinant of a square matrix is nonzero if and only if the matrix has a multiplicative inverse Lessons
N-VM.C.11 (+) Multiply a vector (regarded as a matrix with one column) by a matrix of suitable dimensions to produce another vector. Work with matrices as transformations of vectors Lessons
N-VM.C.12 (+) Work with 2 × 2 matrices as transformations of the plane, and interpret the absolute value of the determinant in terms of area Lessons