44 Standards in this Framework |
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Standard | Description |
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CS.M.1 | Analyze the various mathematical bases (e.g., binary, decimal, hexadecimal) and convert between them. |

CS.M.2 | Describe the relationship between binary and hexadecimal representations. |

CS.M.3 | Convert information between various encoding formats (e.g., ASCII, Unicode, hexadecimal, binary). |

CS.M.4 | Compare techniques (e.g., sorting, statistics, searching) for analyzing massive data collections. |

CS.M.5 | Describe how mathematical and statistical functions, sets, and logic are used in computation. |

CS.M.6 | Utilize predefined mathematical functions and parameters to divide a complex problem into simpler parts, including parallel processing. |

CS.M.7 | Interpret truth tables from basic statements using Boolean operators (AND, OR, XOR, and NOT). |

CS.M.8 | Explain ways in which sequence, selection, iteration, and recursion are building blocks of algorithms. |

CS.M.9 | Create systems of equations based on real-world situations. |

CS.M.10 | Analyze decisions and strategies using probability and statistical concepts. |

CS.M.11 | Utilize modeling and simulation techniques to represent and understand natural phenomena. |

CS.M.12 | Examine classical algorithms (e.g., searching, sorting, and shortest path). |

CS.M.13 | Manipulate formulas and equations and apply them to algorithm development. |

CS.M.14 | Apply algorithm analysis and design techniques to solve problems. |

CS.M.15 | Write algorithms to solve mathematical problems using formulas, equations, and functions. |

CS.M.16 | Implement conditional statements that include if/then, if/then/else, case statements, and Boolean logic, in the design of algorithms. |

CS.M.17 | Represent algorithms using flowcharts and pseudocode. |

CS.M.18 | Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. |

CS.M.19 | Analyze algorithms for correctness, clarity, and efficiency. |

CS.M.20 | Compare and contrast computer programming languages and paradigms (e.g., compiled and interpreted languages, procedural and object-oriented paradigms). |

CS.M.21 | Diagram the program execution process. |

CS.M.22 | Determine the output of a given sample program without the use of a computer. |

CS.M.23 | Implement computing applications using the following software development tools and techniques: -branching (if, if-else), -declare, define, and reference variables, -lists/arrays, -looping (for, while, do/while), -recursion, -sequencing |

CS.M.24 | Use various debugging and testing methods to ensure program correctness. |

CS.M.25 | Cite evidence to support or refute the correctness of software solutions. |

CS.M.26 | Recognize that computers are devices that execute programs. |

CS.M.27 | Identify a variety of electronic devices (e.g., cell phones, desktops, laptops, vehicles, programmable thermostats, and programmable kitchen appliances) that contain computational processors. |

CS.M.28 | Describe unique features of computers embedded in mobile devices and vehicles. |

CS.M.29 | Investigate the history of computers, identifying contributors and major milestones (e.g., Alan Turing, Charles Babbage, Ada Lovelace, Grace Hopper, analytical machine, ENIAC, IBM PC). |

CS.M.30 | Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between hardware and software. |

CS.M.31 | Develop criteria for purchasing or upgrading computer system hardware. |

CS.M.32 | Describe primary components of computer systems (e.g., input, output, processing, and storage). |

CS.M.33 | Explain multiple levels of hardware and software that support program execution (e.g., compilers, interpreters, operating systems, networks). |

CS.M.34 | Apply strategies for identifying and solving routine hardware problems that occur during everyday computer use. |

CS.M.35 | Describe how the Internet facilitates global communication. |

CS.M.36 | Describe issues that impact network functionality (e.g., latency, bandwidth, firewalls, server capability). |

CS.M.37 | Summarize appropriate and inappropriate technological behaviors, including issues of privacy, copyright, security, legalities, and politics. |

CS.M.38 | Explore the ramifications of inappropriate uses of technology. |

CS.M.39 | Investigate the national and global economic impact of cybercrime. |

CS.M.40 | Discuss accessibility issues (e.g., adaptive technology for special needs individuals, censorship, geographical locations, and economically-disadvantaged populations). |

CS.M.41 | Compare the reliability of various online sources. |

CS.M.42 | Investigate information ownership topics: -access, -distribution rights, -hacking, -licensure, -open source, -public domain, -software privacy |

CS.M.43 | Describe security and privacy issues that relate to computer networks. |

CS.M.44 | Explain principles of network security and techniques that protect stored and transmitted data (e.g., encryption, cryptography, and authentication). |