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(int)(x + 0.5) Java

Rounds the value of a double to the nearest whole number.

2D Array Java

A 2D Array is an array of arrays, used to represent tables, grids, and matrices.

2d List Python

A 2d list is a list whose items are also lists.

<a> Tag HTML

Allows putting links on a web page. It uses the href attribute to specify what the link should point to.

<img> Tag HTML

Allows adding an image to a web page. It is self-closing. The attributes of a image tags include src, which specifies where to get the image from (the url for an image ), and width and height attributes, which specify the size of the image in pixels.

<li> Tag HTML

defines a list item inside an HMTL list.

<ul> Tag HTML

Defines an unordered list in HTML.

AAA General

AAA in network security stands for Authentication, Authorization and Accounting. It is used to refer to a family of protocols which mediate network access.

Abstract Class Java

A class, usually at the top of a Class Hierarchy, that cannot be instantiated, because not all of its methods are defined.

Abstract Expressionism General

An art movement in the 1940s and 1950s characterized by creative spontaneous acts, such as Jackson Pollock's dripping paintings.

Abstract method Java

A method, written in an Abstract Class, that is not defined. The word `abstract` must come right before the method's return type. It is up to the subclass to fill in the definition for the abstract method.

Abstraction General

Managing complexity by "abstracting away" information and detail, in order to focus on the relevant concepts.

Access control General

In network security, access control is the restriction of access to a place or other resource on a network. Permission to access a resource is called authorization.

Access control General

In network security, access control is the restriction of access to a place or other resource on a network. Permission to access a resource is called authorization.

Access Specifier Java

Determines who has access to using the method when writing classes and objects.

Accessor Method Java

A method that enables user to obtain information about an object’s instance and static variables.

Accessor Methods Java

Methods used to access instance variable and object data. Also referred to as getter methods.

ACM Java

Association for Computing Machinery: organization for computing professionals to provide guidance related to ethics and responsibilities.

Acute Triangle General

A triangle where all angles are less than 90 degrees.

Algorithm General

An algorithm is a set of steps or rules to follow to solve a particular problem.

algorithm, process

Algorithm Java

Step-by-step process that solves a problem.

alias Java

A variable that references an existing object. When the alias variable is manipulated, so is the original object, and vice versa.

Aliases Java

Two object references are considered aliases when they both reference the same object.

Aliases Java

Two object references are considered aliases when they both reference the same object.

And operator JavaScript

Logical operator that ANDs two boolean values. Written as `&&`. `a && b` will be true if both `a` and `b` are true.

And operator Java

Logical operator that ANDs two boolean values. Written as `&&`. `a && b` will be true if both `a` and `b` are true.

Animation JavaScript

Showing several still images one after another very quickly, to give the illusion of animated movement.

Animation General

Creating the illusion of motion using rapidly changing still images.

append() Python

Add a particular item to the end of a list.

Application Programming Interfaces Java

APIs and libraries simplify complex programming tasks by providing sets of clearly defined methods of communication among various computing components.

Argument JavaScript

A variable passed as a value to a function

argument

ArithmeticException Java

Exception that is thrown to warn programmers about arithmetic errors in their code.

Array JavaScript

Also called a list. A data structure that holds a collection of values in a particular order

List Array

Array Java

Arrays are lists that store many values of the same type

Array Java

Arrays are lists that store many values of the same type

Array Java

A data structure that stores a **fixed** number of elements, all of the same type, one after another like a list.

Array Index Java

The position of an element in an array. The first element is at index 0, the second element is at index 1, and so on.

Array length Java

The number of elements an array can hold. You can get the length of an array `arr` by typing `arr.length`

array.length Java

Returns the length of the array

ArrayList Java

ArrayList is a Java class that is like an Array with extra powers. It can automatically resize and comes with other helpful methods.

array[index] Java

Accesses an element in the array to either update or retrieve.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) General

the ability of a digital computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings

ASCII General

ASCII is the standard protocol for encoding text information as bits. The ASCII table assigns a unique binary number to every text character.

Assigning to a variable Java

Assigning to a variable is updating the variable's value

Asymmetric Encryption General

One key encrypts, a different key decrypts.

Autoboxing Java

Automatic conversion between primitive types and their corresponding object wrapper classes

Availability General

The assurance that systems and data are accessible by authorized users when and where needed.

Back-end JavaScript

Server devices and applications are often referred to as the “back end” - meaning the user doesn’t actually SEE what is happening; it’s hidden from their view and they just see the results on their end.

Back-end General

Server devices and applications are often referred to as the “back end” - meaning the user doesn’t actually SEE what is happening; it’s hidden from their view and they just see the results on their end.

backward(a_number) Python

Command that lets you tell Tracy to move backward. In between the parentheses you need to put a number to tell Tracy how far to move backward.

Bandwidth General

The capacity of data transfer in a system. Measured by bitrate.

Base Case General

The base case is the simplest form of the recursive problem. The base case can be immediately solved without breaking the problem down any further.

Beats General

Drum sounds played sequentially in a repetitive pattern

Behavior Java

The actions that can be completed by an object or class.

Behavior Java

The behavior of an object is what the object is able to do. It is the actions that can be performed by the object.

Bias Java

Prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.

Big-O Notation Java

A way to represent how long an algorithm will take to execute. It helps to determine how efficient different approaches to solving a problem are.

Big-Oh Notation General

Notation that describes how complex an algorithm is. A larger number inside of the Big-Oh notation means the algorithm takes longer to complete, a smaller number means the algorithm takes less time to complete.

Binary General

The binary number system is the Base 2 Number System. It is a number system that only uses 2 digits (0 and 1).

Binary Number System General

Number system that has 2 digits, 0 and 1. This is how computers represent numbers at the base level.

Binary Search General

Search algorithm that only works on a sorted list. It discards half of the list on each iteration, getting to the solution much faster than Linear Search.

Bit General

Bit means "binary digit". A bit is a single digit in a binary number. A bit can either be 0 or 1.

Bitrate General

The amount of data (in bits) that can be sent in a fixed amount of time.

Black Hat Hacking General

attempting to find computer security vulnerabilities and exploit them for personal financial gain or other malicious reasons

Blind SQLi General

Often used when error-based and union-based SQLi do not work. It essentially involves asking the database a series of targeting questions and based on the results gives clues as to how to get the DB to give up its contents.

Boolean Python

A True or False value

Boolean JavaScript

A boolean is a true or false value.

Boolean

Boolean Java

A boolean is a true or false value.

boolean Java

`boolean` is a Java type that can either be true or false

Bootstrap HTML

A framework with predefined web page components that respond automatically to window resizing.

Box model CSS

Modeling every element on a web page as if it were wrapped in a box

Break Python

Exits the current loop and resumes execution at the next statement.

break Java

Breaks out of a while loop and executes statements that immediately follow while loop.

Break Down (Decompose) JavaScript

Breaking down (decomposing) your code is splitting it into more functions.

Break Down (Decompose)

Break Down (Decompose) Java

Breaking down (decomposing) your code is splitting it up into several smaller, simpler methods

break statement JavaScript

The `break;` statement breaks out of the current loop, without executing any more code in the loop.

break statement Java

The `break;` statement breaks out of the current loop, without executing any more code in the loop.

Brightness General

the overall lightness or darkness of the image

Browser General

A program on your computer that sends requests for webpages and displays them.

Bug General

A bug is a problem in your code.

Bug

Byte General

A byte is 8 bits.

Caesar Cipher General

An encryption method in which each letter of the message is shifted by a certain amount, called the key

Call a Function JavaScript

Calling a function actually gives the command, so the computer will run the code for that function.

Call a Function

Call site Java

A method's call site is the point in the code where the method is called.

Callback Function JavaScript

A function passed as a parameter to another function in order to be called later.

Calling a Method Java

objectName.method()

Calling a method Java

Calling a method actually gives the command, so the computer will run the code for that method.

Canvas JavaScript

The screen in which our graphics programs are drawn.

Canvas

Carousel HTML

A component that continually displays different content, often with the goal of highlighting particular areas or content of the website

Casting Java

Turning something of one type into another type!

Casting Java

Casting is turning something of one type into another type

char Java

`char` is a Java type that represents a single character (a single letter)

charAt(int index) Java

charAt(int index) returns the character at the specified index.

chord General

a group of two or more notes sounded together

chord progression General

a sequence of chords

CIA Triad General

The CIA Triad is a widely-accepted security measure that should be guaranteed in every secure system. It stands for Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability.

Citizen Science General

Science that harnesses the power of many individuals to solve hard, complex problems.

Class Java

Classes are the template through which objects are created. It is the formal blueprint for creating objects.

Class Java

A class is a template, or a blueprint, from which Java objects are created. All Java programs start with a class.

Class Attribute HTML

`class` is an attribute we can add to HTML tags in order to style a specific group of elements.

Class Hierarchy Java

Class hierarchy refers to the arrangement of classes and how they relate to each other.

Client Java

When someone else creates a Class (like `String`, or `Randomizer`), and you are using the functionality of that Class in your program, your program is a *client* of the class. You are using the class as a client.

Client Application JavaScript

Client-server applications are programs or apps that run on our client devices AND need to access resources from a server. In other words, they need help and can’t do what they need to do alone.

Client Application General

Client-server applications are programs or apps that run on our client devices AND need to access resources from a server. In other words, they need help and can’t do what they need to do alone.

Client Device General

Client devices are typically personal computing devices with network software applications installed that request and receive information over the network or Internet. Mobile devices like your smart phone, tablets, iPads, laptops and also desktop computers can can all function as clients.

Client Device JavaScript

Client devices are typically personal computing devices with network software applications installed that request and receive information over the network or Internet. Mobile devices like your smart phone, tablets, iPads, laptops and also desktop computers can can all function as clients.

Client-server model JavaScript

Clients and servers communicate over a computer network on separate hardware, but both client and server may reside in the same system. A server host runs one or more server programs which share their resources with clients. A client does not share any of its resources, but requests a server's content or service function. Servers store and protect data and process requests from clients. Clients make requests and format data on the device for the end user.

Client-server model General

Clients and servers communicate over a computer network on separate hardware, but both client and server may reside in the same system. A server host runs one or more server programs which share their resources with clients. A client does not share any of its resources, but requests a server's content or service function. Servers store and protect data and process requests from clients. Clients make requests and format data on the device for the end user.

Cloud Computing General

Cloud computing is the on demand availability of computer system resources, especially data storage and computing power, without direct active management by the user.

Code General

Code is the name for the instructions you write to a computer in a program.

Code

Collage General

a collection of images

Collisions General

whenever 2 inputs map to the same output.

Color saturation General

the intensity of a color, expressed as the degree to which it differs from white

Color("red") Python

Command to change Tracy's color.

Color("red") Python

Command to change Tracy's color.

Color("red") Python

Command to change Tracy’s color.

Colorblind General

A condition in which a person has difficulty distinguishing particular colors from each other

Column General

Represents a piece of information (or attribute).

Command JavaScript

A command is an instruction you can give to Karel.

Command

Command Java

A command is an instruction you can give to Karel.

Comment JavaScript

A message in your code that explains what is going on.

Comment

Comment Python

A message in your code that explains what is going on.

Comment Java

A message in your code that explains what is going on.

Comment Out JavaScript

Commenting out code makes the computer ignore it, so it does not run.

Comment Out

Common Array Algorithms Java

Algorithms that are often used in computer science to do basic analysis on a list. These often include traversing and selection processing.

Comparable Interface Java

The Comparable Interface is a standard interface in Java that mandates that all classes implementing the Comparable interface must define a method called `int compareTo(Object o)` that returns a positive int if the parameter `o` passed in is *less than* the current instance, returns 0 if it is equal, and a negative int if it is greater.

Comparison Operator Python

Used to make comparisons between values.

Comparison operator General

Used to make comparisons between values.

comparison operator

Compile Time Error Java

An error in the actual Java code. The code will not **compile** into an executable program, because there are errors in the text of the code.

Compiler Java

A tool that compiles your Java code, it takes the Java code you've written and turns it into an executable program.

Complementary colors General

Colors that create a greyscale color when combined. When placed next to each other, they create the strongest contrast available for those particular colors.

Compound Assignment Operators Java

Allows programmers to shortcut variable assignments that include the variable being assigned a new value: x = x + y; shortcut: x += y;

Computational Artifact General

A video, a visualization, a graphic, a program, or an audio recording that students submit providing an illustration, representation, or explanation of the computing innovation's intended purpose, its function, or its effect.

Computer JavaScript

A person or device that makes calculations, stores data, and executes instructions according to a program.

Computer

Computer Science General

The study of computational thinking, the thinking humans need to in order to describe a step by step process to a computer.

Computing JavaScript

Executing instructions, calculating, or using a computer.

Computing

Concatenation Python

Adding two strings together using the "+" operator.

Concatenation Java

The process of adding two String values together. This creates a new String object. Primitives can be concatenated with String objects.

Concatenation Java

The process of adding two String values together. This creates a new String object. Primitives can be concatenated with String objects.

Concatenation Java

Concatenation is another word for combining. Concatenating Strings is when we add Strings together.

Condition General

A condition is code that you put inside an if statement or while-loop.

Condition

Confidentiality General

The protection of information from people who are not authorized to view it.

Console JavaScript

A computer program that is run using a text-only interface.

console programming

Constant JavaScript

A variable in a program that has a value that does not change.

Constant

Constant Java

A constant is a variable you define at the top of the program that doesn’t change. The reason to define constants is to store named variables that have relevant values for the program.

Constructor Java

A constructor is a special method of a Class that constructs a new object (a new instance) of the Class and sets the initial values for the instance variables.

Constructor/Signature Java

Allows for the creation of a new object. Consists of the constructor name and parameter list.

Continue Python

Rejects all the remaining statements in the current iteration of the loop and moves the control back to the top of the loop to continue to the next iteration. Can be used in both while and for loops.

Contrast General

the difference in brightness between objects or regions

Control Structure General

A control structure lets us change the flow of the code.

Control Structure loops if statements

Coordinate system JavaScript

A coordinate system uses numbers as coordinates to place objects in a geometric space.

coordinate system

Copyright General

A law that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to its use, distribution, and sale

Correlation General

A connection between two things.

count() Python

A method that counts occurrences of specific items in a list.

Counter JavaScript

A variable used to count the number of times an action has been performed

counter variable

Counter Java

A variable used to count the number of times an action has been performed.

Cross-site Scripting (XSS) JavaScript

Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a security bug that can affect websites. If present in your website, this bug can allow an attacker to add their own malicious JavaScript code onto the HTML pages displayed to your users. Once executed by the victim's browser, this code could then perform actions such as completely changing the behavior or appearance of the website, stealing private data, or performing actions on behalf of the user.

Cryptanalysis General

The process of decrypting coded messages without being told the key.

Cryptography General

Scrambling digital information into an unreadable form. Only those with verified authority (password, key, etc) can unscramble it to read it.

Cryptology General

The practice of solving and writing encryptions

CSS CSS

Cascading Style Sheets. The language for designing web pages and adding style.

Curly Bracket General

An open curly bracket is { and a close curly bracket is }

Curly Bracket

Cyberbullying General

the use of electronic communication to bully a person

Cybercrime General

Identity theft, stealing money, stealing private information, controlling private computers.

Cybersecurity General

Protocols for encrypting/decrypting information. Most cybersecurity breaches happen due to human error, not software bugs.

Cybersecurity General

Protection of computer systems, networks, and data from digital attacks.

Dashboard HTML

An admin-like web page with the functionality to manage the website

Data General

Information (numbers, words, measurements, observations, etc) that is in a computer-readable form.

Data Collecting Methods General

Methods to gather various data points. Surveys, sensors, transactional data from credit cards, websites storing information about you, crowdsourcing data.

Data Compression General

The process of encoding information, using fewer bits than the original representation. We can use algorithms to compress the data to use less bits for storage and then decompress it when we want to view it again.

Data Limitations General

Visualizations can be misleading by skewing the axes or labels, or leaving out relevant data.

Data privacy General

how company's use your data

Data privacy General

how a company uses your data

Data security General

protecting your data online

Data security General

protecting your data online

Data Structure Java

A particular way of organizing data in our programs.

Data Visualization General

Using charts, graphs, or images to visualize complex data.

Data Visualization JavaScript

Using charts, graphs, or images to visualize complex data.

Data Visualization General

Using charts, graphs, or images to visualize complex data.

Data Visualization Limitation General

Visualizations can be misleading by skewing the axes or labels, or leaving out relevant data.

Database General

An organized collection of data (e.g., text, images, videos, audio, geospatial, tabular) An electronic system that allows data to be easily accessed, manipulated and updated via a Database Management System (DBMS).

Database General

An organized collection of data (e.g., text, images, videos, audio, geospatial, tabular) An electronic system that allows data to be easily accessed, manipulated and updated via a Database Management System (DBMS).

DDoS Attack General

Distributed Denial of Service attack. Spam a web server with so many requests so close together that it crashes. Sometimes spitting out valuable information as it crashes.

De Morgan's Laws JavaScript

Rules that show how we can negate expressions with `and` and `or`.

De Morgan's Laws Python

Rules that show how we can negate expressions with `and` and `or`.

De Morgan's Laws Java

Laws that define how we can negate an AND statement and how we can negate an OR statement

De Morgan’s Laws Java

!(A && B) == !A || !B; !(A || B) == !A && !B

Debugging General

Debugging is fixing a problem in your code.

Debugging

Decimal General

The decimal number system is the Base 10 number system. It is a number system that only uses 10 digits (0 through 9).

Decimal Number System General

The number system we use in out everyday lives. It has 10 digits, 0-9.

Declare a Variable JavaScript

Declaring a variable is defining it for the first time.

Declare a Variable

Declare a variable Java

Declaring a variable is defining it for the first time.

Decomposition General

Decomposition is breaking your program into smaller parts.

Decomposition

Decrement Java

Decrease the value of a variable by one. variable--;

Decrement General

To subtract from or decrease

decrement

Define a Function JavaScript

Defining a function means to teach the computer a new command and explain what it should do when receiving that command.

Define a Function

Define a method Java

Defining a method means to teach the computer a new command and explain what it should do when receiving that command.

Degrees JavaScript

A unit of measurement of angles

Degrees

Dictionary Python

A data structure to store key/value pairs.

Digest General

The output from any input that has been processed through a hashing algorithm / function.

Digital Footprint General

The information about a particular person that exists on the Internet as a result of their online activity

Div HTML

A tag that creates a new area of content on a web page that can be styled independently of the rest of the site

Divide and Conquer General

A problem solving approach where you **divide** the problem into several smaller sub-problems of similar form, and keep doing so until the problems are trivially simple to solve (**conquer**)

DNS Spoofing General

Pretending to be a DNS name resolver. Feed your computer the wrong IP address for a given website, and your browser now goes to a false website.

Documentation Java

Documentation is the reference for how to use different methods and classes

Domain Name System (DNS) General

Used to translate domain names into IP addresses.

Domain Name System (DNS) General

Translates names to IP addresses.

double Java

`double` is a Java type that represents a real number with decimal values

double abs(double x) Java

Returns the absolute value of a double value

double pow(double base, double exponent) Java

Returns the value of the first parameter raised to the power of the second parameter

Double Quotes General

The `"` character

double random() Java

Returns a double value greater than or equal to 0.0 and less than 1.0

double sqrt(double x) Java

Returns the positive square root of a double value

DRY Principle JavaScript

Don't repeat yourself: try to simplify your code and avoid repeating code unnecessarily.

dry, repeated code

DRY Principle HTML

Don't Repeat Yourself: Simplify your HTML by grouping code into classes, stylesheets, or other types of templates

DRY Principle Java

Otherwise known as Don’t Repeat Yourself, this principle is designed to help eliminate repeated code and reduce the complexity of a solution

Dynamic Binding Java

Also called late binding, this refers to Java choosing the proper method to call at run time, as opposed to at compile time.

Edge Case General

An edge case is a problem in your code that only occurs in extreme situations.

Edge Case

Elif Python

A control flow tool used as a second condition check after an if statement. It is a contraction of else if.

Embed HTML

In the context of an HTML page, inserting outside content into an HTML page

Encapsulation Java

The process of hiding the implementation details of a class from the user

Enhanced For Loop Java

A loop that is an alternate to a for or while loop that accesses each value in an array starting at the first value and proceeding in order.

Enhanced For Loop Variable Java

Variable created in the enhanced for loop header that contains a copy of the array variable.

Equilateral Triangle General

A triangle where all angles and side lengths are equal.

Equivalence Python

When two objects have the same properties but are not the same object.

Error-based SQLi General

An injection risk where the website returns errors that the hacker can use to explore the database more. This is the first clear test that an attacker can use to test to see if a site is vulnerable. It is usually displayed as an unhandled internal exception error. This info is meant for the developer and is not meant to go back and deliver it to a person’s webpage.

Escape Sequence General

Escape sequences are characters with special meanings.

Escape Sequences Java

Enable users to use special characters and actions within String objects.

Event JavaScript

An event is an action (such as clicking the mouse or pressing a key on the keyboard) that a program detects and uses as input.

Event

event handler JavaScript

determines how the game (or website or app) responds to different events

event handler JavaScript

determines how the game (or website or app) responds to different events

event handler JavaScript

determines how the game (or website or app) responds to different events

events JavaScript

user actions or a particular scenario that might trigger an action during a game in video game development (or on a website or app)

events JavaScript

user actions or a particular scenario that might trigger an action during a game in video game development (or on a website or app); we say that events are triggered by the user

Exception Java

An exception is thrown by Java when a **runtime error** is encountered. The exception provides information about what kind of error occurred.

Exceptions Python

Runtime errors in a program. by default, they stop the program.

exploit General

a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, etc.

extend() Python

Takes a list as an argument and extends the current list with the list given as an argument.

Face Tracking General

a computer technology being used in a variety of applications that identifies human faces in digital images

Fencepost Problem General

A problem when using a while loop where you forget one action at the beginning or the end.

Fencepost Problem

Fiber Optic Cables General

Able to send bits from router to router across long distances, but they are very expensive.

Filter General

a software routine that changes the appearance of an image or part of an image by altering the shades and colors of the pixels in some manner

final Java

Prevents variables from changing value.

find() Python

Python method that returns the index at which the string is found in another string, returns -1 if not found.

Firewall Rule General

A firewall is a system that provides network security by filtering incoming and outgoing network traffic based on a set of firewall rules. The purpose of a firewall is to reduce or eliminate the occurrence of unwanted network communications while allowing all legitimate communication to flow freely.

Float JavaScript

A float, or floating point value, is a numeric value that can have decimal level precision (ex: 3.14)

Float JavaScript

A float, or floating point value, is a numeric value that can have decimal level precision (ex: 3.14)

Float JavaScript

A float, or floating point value, is a numeric value that can have decimal level precision (ex: 3.14)

Floating Point Numbers Python

Also called floats, floating point numbers represent real numbers and are written with a decimal point dividing the integer and fractional parts.

For Each Loop Java

A for loop that is written differently so that it loops through each element in a data structure, as opposed to having a loop counter variable that goes from 0 to length-1.

For Loop JavaScript

A for loop lets us repeat code a **fixed number of times**.

For Loop

For Loop Python

A for loop lets us repeat code a **fixed number of times.**

For Loop Python

A for loop lets us repeat code a **fixed number of times.**

For Loop JavaScript

A for loop lets us repeat code a **fixed number of times**.

For Loop Python

A for loop lets us repeat code a **fixed number of times.**

For Loop Python

A for loop lets us repeat code a **fixed number of times.**

For Loop Java

A for loop lets us repeat code a **fixed number of times**.

Formal and Actual Parameters Java

Formal parameters are the parameters outlined in the parameter list in the constructor, while actual parameters are the parameters that are input when a new instance of a class object is created.

forward(a_number) Python

Command that lets you tell Tracy to move forward. In between the parentheses you need to put a number to tell Tracy how far to move forward.

Front-end JavaScript

Client devices and applications are often referred to as the “front end” - meaning what the user actually sees.

Front-end General

Client devices and applications are often referred to as the “front end” - meaning what the user actually sees.

Function Python

A function is like a command that you get to invent and name. It allows us to break our program into smaller parts, making the program easier to understand.

Function JavaScript

A function is a way to teach Karel a new word.

Function

Function General

A function is like a command that you get to invent and name. It allows us to break our program into smaller parts, making the program easier to understand.

Function Python

A function is like a command that you get to invent and name. It allows us to break our program into smaller parts, making the program easier to understand.

Function Python

A function is like a command that you get to invent and name. It allows us to break our program into smaller parts, making the program easier to understand.

Function body Python

In Python functions, the function body is the indented block of code that comes after the `def my_function():` line. The function body is what will be executed when the function is called.

Function body General

In Python functions, the function body is the indented block of code that comes after the `def my_function():` line. The function body is what will be executed when the function is called.

Function body JavaScript

The part of a function that contains the commands

function body

Function Body Python

In Python functions, the function body is the indented block of code that comes after the `def my_function():` line. The function body is what will be executed when the function is called.

Function Body Python

In Python functions, the function body is the indented block of code that comes after the `def my_function():` line. The function body is what will be executed when the function is called.

Function Body Python

In Python functions, the function body is the indented block of code that comes after the `def my_function():` line. The function body is what will be executed when the function is called.

getHeight() JavaScript

JavaScript function that returns the height of the graphics canvas

Getter Method Java

An instance method that allows the client to **get** the value of an instance variable on an object.

getWidth() JavaScript

JavaScript function that returns the width of the graphics canvas

GIF General

Graphics Interchange Format; an image format that allows animations

Gigabyte General

A gigabyte (GB) is 2^30 bytes (1024 MB) of binary data.

Global variable JavaScript

A variable that can be used throughout a program, in every scope

Global variable

Grid JavaScript

A two-dimensional array

Grid

Grid Layout HTML

One of Bootstrap's layout options that allows the developer to segment the web page into a table of rows and columns in which to place content

Growth Mindset General

A can-do attitude in which a person views challenges and setbacks as ways to learn rather than terminal obstacles in their path to their goal

Hardware General

The physical components of a computer

Hash Functions or Hashing General

The word hashing literally means to scramble. Hashing changes a message into an unreadable string of text for the purpose of verifying the message’s contents, but not hiding the message itself. It must be easy to compute the output (the digest) for any input, but hard to compute the input for any output. A hash function takes an input string of arbitrary length and produces a fixed- size, short output called a digest . It’s always the same length no matter how big the input is AND the output is always the same hash for any given input. Unlike symmetric and asymmetric algorithms, there are no “keys” in hashing functions.

HashMap Java

A data structure that stores key -> value mappings.

Hello World General

Traditionally the very first program you write when learning a programming language, a program that prints "Hello world" to the user.

Hexadecimal General

The hexadecimal number system is the Base 16 number system. It is a number system that only uses 16 digits (0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F)

Hexadecimal Number System General

Number system that has 16 digits 1 - 9 and A - F.

Hexadecimal Number System General

Number system that has 16 digits 1 - 9 and A - F.

HTML HTML

Hypertext Markup Language

HTML

HTML Documentation HTML

Documentation and syntax for HTML

html docs html documentation

HTML Formatting HTML

HTML provides several tags for formatting text on web pages.

HTML Lists HTML

Way to organize information with a simple structure that is easy to read and write on a webpage. There are ordered and unordered HTML lists.

HTML Tables HTML

Tables display information in a grid.

HTML Tag HTML

Tags are the building blocks of an HTML document

Tag

HTTP General

HyperText Transfer Protocol is a protocol that standardizes the language for talking to web servers to send and receive web pages, or HyperText information (HTML pages).

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) General

Protocol that standardizes the language for talking to web servers to send and receive web resources. Defines how computers send and receive hypertext information. (HTTPS: The “S” denotes a secure connection using HTTP.)

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) General

Protocol that standardizes the language for talking to web servers to send and receive web resources. Defines how computers send and receive hypertext information. (HTTPS: The “S” denotes a secure connection using HTTP.)

https General

secure data transfer protocol when on the internet

https General

secure data transfer protocol when on the internet

Hyperlink HTML

The connection between one HTML page to another HTML page

id Attribute HTML

`id` is an attribute we can add to an HTML tag to style that specific element.

Identity Python

When two variables refer to the same object in memory.

If Else Statement General

Control structure that lets us do either one section of code or another depending on a test.

If Else Statement

If Statement General

An if statement lets you ask a question to the program and only run code if the answer is true.

If Statement

If Statement General

An if statement lets you ask a question to the program and only run code if the answer is true.

if statements Java

if (boolean expression) { //execute statements if condition is true }

if statements Java

if (boolean expression) { //execute statements if condition is true }

Iframe HTML

An HTML page embedded inside of another HTML page

Image filter General

A procedure that applies a particular function to an image's pixels to change its appearance

Immutable Java

Unable to be changed or manipulated. String are immutable.

Immutable Java

Unable to change. Strings in Java are immutable, meaning you can't change it once you make it. If you take a substring of a String, or concatenate something to a String, the result is a *brand new* String, rather than a modification of the original.

Implicit Casting Java

When Java automatically casts the value correctly without the programmer needing to do so

Implicit Conversion Java

The automatic process of transforming a variables data type. This occurs when a primitive and String object are concatenated by changing the primitive value to a String object type.

in Python

Keyword that helps in iteration in loops (`for letter in "hello": ...`) or to identify if an iterable (like a list or a long string) contains something (`"h" in "hello"` would evaluate to True).

Increment Java

Increase the value of a variable by one. variable++;

Increment General

To add to or increase

Increment

Indentation JavaScript

Indentation is the visual structure of how your code is laid out. It uses tabs to organize code into a hierarchy.

Indentation

Indentation General

Indentation is the visual structure of how your code is laid out. It uses tabs to organize code into a hierarchy.

Index Java

Array values are stored at a particular index and we access elements in the array by referencing this index value. Index values in Arrays start a 0.

Indexing into an array Java

Getting a value at a particular index in an array.

IndexOutOfBoundsException Java

A String object has index values from 0 to length – 1. Attempting to access indices outside this range will result in this error.

Infinite Loop General

A loop that has no way of stopping, and will keep looping forever.

Infinite loops Java

Occurs when the expression in a while loop never evaluates to false. The program continues to run infinitely.

Infinite Recursion General

Infinite recursion occurs when the base case can never be reached.

Information Literacy General

Information literacy is having the ability to find information, evaluate information credibility, and use information effectively.

Inheritance Java

When a subclass extends a superclass, the subclass inherits all of the static methods, static variables, and public instance methods of the superclass. This is called inheritance.

Initialize a Variable JavaScript

Initializing a variable is giving it an initial value.

Initialize a variable Java

Initializing a variable is giving it an initial value, or a starting value.

input() Python

A function that prints a prompt and retrieves text from the user.

Insertion Sort General

Sorting algorithm that sorts an array of values. The idea behind insertion sort is to have a sorted part of the list and an unsorted part. On each iteration of the algorithm, we grab the next unsorted element and place it in its proper position in the sorted section.

Inspector General

A browser's built in functionality that allows the programmer to look at and temporarily modify the code that defines the website

Instance Java

A created object with defined attributes.

Instance Java

Instance is what you call a specific object constructed from a class. Instance and object generally refer to the same thing. An object is a specific instance of a class.

Instance Method Java

An instance method is a method that defines the behavior of an object. It defines an action that the object can perform.

Instance Variable Java

A variable defined in a Class, for which each object of the class has its own copy.

Instance Variables Java

Used to store the state, or data of the object instances.

Instantiate Java

Create an instance of a class object.

int Java

`int` is a Java type that represents an integer (a whole number)

int abs(int x) Java

Returns the absolute value of an int value

int compareTo(String other) Java

Returns a value < 0 if this is less than other; returns zero if this is equal to other; returns a value > 0 if this is greater than other

int indexOf(String str) Java

Returns the index of the first occurrence of str; returns -1 if not found

int intValue() and double doubleValue() Java

Returns the value of this Integer as an int and this Double as a double

int length() Java

Returns the number of characters in a String object

Integer JavaScript

A whole number (not a fraction)

integer

Integer and Double Classes Java

These classes are part of the java.lang package and Object class and have a number of useful methods.

Integer and Double Classes Java

These classes are part of the java.lang package and Object class and have a number of useful methods.

Integer Division General

When two integers are divided, the decimal values are truncated, or chopped off.

Integer(int value) and Double(double value) Java

Constructs a new Integer object or a new Double Object that represents the specified int or double value

Integer.MAX_VALUE Java

The highest value Java is able to access. 2147483647

Integer.MIN_VALUE Java

The lowest value Java is able to access. -2147483648

Integer.MIN_VALUE and Integer.MAX_VALUE Java

The minimum/maximum value represented by an int or Integer, which are -2147483648 and 2147483647

Integrity General

Aims at ensuring that information is protected from unauthorized or unintentional alteration.

Interface Java

An interface provides a list of methods that *must* be defined if a class chooses to implement the interface.

Internet General

A philosophy of making information and knowledge open and accessible to ALL. A network of networks built on open, agreed upon protocols.

Internet of Things General

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity which enables these things to connect and exchange data.

Internet Protocol (IP) General

A protocol that defines the structure of an Internet address and assigns a unique address to every device on the Internet.

Internet Protocol (IP) General

Standardizes the layout of all packets. All packets must have a destination IP address, a from IP address, and the actual data being sent. Defines the layout of a SINGLE packet.

Intrusion Detection System (IDS) General

Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) are available in two different types: host-based intrusion system (HBIS) and network-based intrusion system (NBIS). An IDS tries to detect malicious activity such as denial-of-service attacks, port scans and attacks by monitoring the network traffic.

Inversion General

the act of switching colors along the color wheel

Inversion General

the act of switching colors along the color wheel (red to green, blue to orange, etc.)

Invert Filter General

With respect to images, a filter that replaces pixels' color, hue, or brightness with their inverse. The result is light areas become dark and/or colors are replaced with their complementary color

IP (Internet Protocol) JavaScript

The protocol that defines the payout of an an Internet address.

IP (Internet Protocol) General

The protocol that defines the payout of an an Internet address.

IPv6 General

A new 128 bit version of the Internet Protocol.

islower() Python

`islower()` method returns `True` is a string is all lowercase letters and `False` if otherwise.

isupper() Python

`isupper()` method returns `True` is a string is all uppercase letters and `False` if otherwise.

Iterate General

A single run through the instructions contained a loop

Iterate

Iterating over an array Java

Looping through all of the elements of an array

Iteration General

Repetition of instructions a specified number of times, or until a condition is met.

Java Documentation Java

Documentation showing the syntax and examples for how to use the various features of Java.

Java Main Skeleton Java

Includes the class and main method arguments. Must include both in order to run successfully.

Javadoc Java

A specific standard for commenting Java programs. Javadoc is a format to follow when commenting in order to clearly explain your code.

Javadoc Comment Java

/** 1. One sentence description of code’s function. 2. Preconditions 3. Postconditions 4. Block tags */

JavaScript General

A computer programming language

JavaScript General

a computer programming language

JavaScript General

a computer programming language

JavaScript General

an object-oriented computer programming language commonly used to create interactive effects within web browsers.

JavaScript Documentation JavaScript

Documentation for the syntax and objects in Javascript that we use on CodeHS.

javascript documentation javascript docs js documentation js docs graphics data structures

Jumbotron HTML

Typically a very large container at the top of a web page that showcases the most important information

Karel General

Karel is a dog who listens to your commands.

Karel

Karel Documentation JavaScript

Documentation for all Karel Commands and Syntax.

karel documentation karel docs karel reference

Karel Documentation Java

Documentation for all Karel Commands and Syntax

Key Java

A key is the value used to look something up in a HashMap

Kilobyte General

A kilobyte (kB) is 2^10 bytes (1024 bytes) of binary data.

Latency General

The latency of a system is the time it takes for a bit to travel from sender to receiver. Fiber optic cables have low latency.

left(degrees) Python

Command that tells tracy to turn left and in between parentheses, how many degrees to turn left.

Linear Search General

Also called sequential search, a search algorithm that searches for a given value in a list of values. Linear search is less efficient than binary search.

List Python

A heterogenous, **mutable** data type that stores an ordered sequence of things.

List JavaScript

Also called an array. A data structure that holds a collection of values in a particular order

List Array

List Comprehension Python

Python concept used to construct lists in a concise manner.

List Interface Java

A Java Interface that represents a general List. The interface provides a list of methods that classes should implement if they want to be used as a List.

Literal Java

The fixed value being assigned to a variable. Often primitive data types.

Local variable General

A variable that is restricted to use in a certain scope of a program

Local variable

Local Variable Java

A variable that is defined in a method or constructor. It only exists in the context of the method that it belongs to.

Logical equality Java

Compares the data of the objects instead of the value of the references. Uses the .equals() method.

Logical operator JavaScript

Used to make logical associations between boolean values

logical operator

Logical Operator Java

Used to make logical associations between boolean values.

Logical Operators Java

Can be used to connect boolean expressions to make more complex expression. NOT ! AND && OR ||

Loginal Operator Python

Used to make logical associations between boolean values.

Loop General

A loop is a way to repeat code in your program.

Loop

Loop-and-a-half JavaScript

A loop, most often set with while(true), that has a break in the loop body.

loop and a half

Loop-and-a-half Java

A loop, most often set with `while(true)`, that has a `break` statement in the loop body.

Lossy Compression General

Throwing away some of the data to save space. We can throw away a lot of data without any noticeable difference from the original.

lower() Python

Python method that changes letters to lowercase.

lowerCamelCase General

`lowerCamelCase` is a naming convention where the first letter is lower case, and each subsequent start of a word is upper case.

lowerCamelCase

Magic Number JavaScript

A number in your code that appears arbitrary. These should all be replaced with calculations or constants.

Magic Number

Math Class Java

The Math class is part of the java.lang package and contains only static methods.

Math.random Java

Can be manipulated to produce a random int or double in a defined range.

Megabyte General

A megabyte (MB) is 2^20 bytes (1024 kB) of binary data.

Meme General

a humorous image or video that is copied and spread; usually consists of an image and witty caption

Mergesort General

A recursive sorting algorithm that sorts an array of values more efficiently than Selection Sort and Insertion Sort using a Divide and Conquer approach.

Metadata HTML

Metadata General

a set of data that describes and gives information about other data.

Method Java

Procedures that allow us to control and define the behavior of an object.

Method Java

A method is a way to teach the computer a new command

Method body Java

The part of the method that contains the commands

Method Decomposition Java

The process of breaking down large problems into smaller problems, each with a method that defines a subproblem in the larger problem.

Method overloading Java

Methods can have multiple signatures. Java will use the correct signature based on the actual parameters used in a program.

Method Overloading Java

Classes can have multiple methods with the same name, as long as the parameters to those methods are different. Doing this is called "overloading" a method.

Method Overriding Java

If a subclass defines a new method body for a method defined in the superclass, then the subclass has **overridden** the method of the superclass.

Method signature Java

A method's **method signature** is the name of the method and the parameter list.

Minified Code General

in computer programming languages and especially JavaScript, is the process of removing all unnecessary characters from source code without changing its functionality.

Modulo Operation General

Finds the remainder after division of one number by another (sometimes called modulus). Example: 14 ➗ 4 = 3 remainder 2 14 mod 4 = 2 14 % 4 = 2

Modulus Python

Represented with "%" it returns the remainder of the division between two numbers. For example, `14%5` would return 4.

Modulus operator General

The modulus operator (written as % in most programming languages) divides two numbers and returns the remainder.

Moore's Law General

An observation that the processing speed of computers is doubling every year. This is *exponential* growth. Computers are getting smaller and faster at an exponential rate.

Multi-Line Comment Java

/* This is a multi- Line comment*/

Music Visualization General

generated animated imagery based on a piece of music.

Mutator Method Java

A method that enables user to change the value of an object’s instance and static variables.

Mutator Methods Java

Methods used to change or manipulate instance variable or object data. Also referred to as setter methods.

Navbar HTML

Short for `navigation bar`, it contains a series of links that the user can use to visit the main parts of a website

Negate General

To flip a boolean value, or take the opposite of a boolean value. If you negate true, you get false. If you negate false, you get true.

Nested Control Structures Python

It is possible to combine more than one of Python's control structures to create more complex programs with various conditions. For example, combining iteration tools like a for loop with conditional statements inside the for loop.

Nested for loop JavaScript

A for loop written, or "nested", inside of another for loop.

nested double for

Nested For Loop Java

A for loop written, or “nested”, inside of another for loop. For example:

Nested Function JavaScript

A nested function is a function that is defined inside another function. This should be avoided.

Nested Function

Nested if Statements Java

The process of placing if statements within if statements.

Nested Loops Java

When a loop is placed within another loop. The total number of runs for a nested loop will be the outer loop * inner loop.

Networks General

A group of 2 or more computer systems linked together.

new Java

Necessary keyword for instantiating a new class object.

Not operator JavaScript

Logical operator that negates a single boolean value. Written as `!`. `!a` will be true if `a` is false, and false if `a` is true.

Not operator Java

Logical operator that negates a single boolean value. Written as `!`. `!a` will be true if `a` is false, and false if `a` is true.

null Java

A keyword that indicates a reference object doesn’t point to any object data.

Null Pointer Java

Before an object variable is initialized, it doesn't point to any memory. It holds a **null pointer**.

Number Base General

The number base of a number system defines how many digits are in the number system, and the base of the exponent for each place value in a number.

Number System General

Defines how we represent numbers. Which digits we can use, and what each position (place ) in a number means.

Number System General

Defines how we represent numbers. Which digits we can use, and what each position (place ) in a number means.

Number System General

A number system defines how we represent numbers. It defines which digits we can use, and what value each position (place value) in a number has.

Object JavaScript

Also called a dictionary or map. Lets us store pairs of keys that are matched with a specific value.

Object

Object Java

An object is a variable of a data type that is user defined. Every object has a state and a behavior.

Object Java

An object is a variable of a data type that is user defined. Every object has a state and a behavior.

Object Java

An object is a single instance of a Java class. An object has both state and behavior.

Object Oriented Programming Java

The use of object and class types in programming.

Object Oriented Programming Java

Programming model that focuses on **objects** and the data and actions associated with the objects.

object.instanceVariable Java

Instance variables can be accessed directly by using the reference variable name + . + the instance variable name. This only works within the class file if the instance variables are set to private.

Obtuse Triangle General

A triangle where one angle is greater than 90 degrees.

Octal General

The octal number system is the Base 8 number system. It is a number system that only uses 8 digits (0 through 7).

Off by One Error Java

When a for loop iteration is off by one too many or one too few.

Or operator JavaScript

Logical operator that ORs two boolean values. Written as `||`. `a || b` will be true if `a` or `b` is true.

Or operator Java

Logical operator that ORs two boolean values. Written as `||`. `a || b` will be true if `a` or `b` is true.

Order of Operations Java

The order in which mathematical expressions should be evaluated. Starts with Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplications and Division, Addition and Subtraction.

Overflow Java

When a calculation relies on a number outside the acceptable number range, Java will wrap back to the MIN or MAX value depending on the value.

Overloading JavaScript

When a class has more than one constructor with the same name, but different parameter lists.

Overloading Java

When a class has more than one constructor with the same name, but different parameter lists.

OWASP General

Open Web Application Security Project; highly-regarded organization and much used by cybersecurity professionals.

Package Java

Packages are used to group code into a folder for easy use.

Package Java

Packages are used to group code into a folder for easy use.

Package Java

Related classes are grouped together into packages.

Packets General

Packets are the units of data that are sent over the network.

Packing Python

Taking some variables and packing them into a list.

Parameter JavaScript

A variable passed in from outside the function

parameter

Parameter Java

A variable passed into a method from outside the method.

parameter JavaScript

piece of data provided as input to change the specifics of a program

Parameters Python

Pieces of information you can give to functions when you define them. When the function is called the arguments are the data you pass into the function's parameters. Parameter is the variable in the declaration of the function. Argument is the actual value of this variable that gets passed to the function.

Parentheses General

( and )

Parentheses

Phishing General

The usage of deceptive emails and websites to mailiciously gather personal information

Pixel General

Images are made up of pixels, which are essentially a grid of values. Each value, or pixel, encodes the color at that position in the image.

Pixel General

Images are made up of pixels, which are essentially a grid of values. Each value, or pixel, encodes the color at that position in the image.

Pixel Image General

An image can be represented as a grid of values. Each value encodes the color at that position in the image.

Pointer Java

When an object is assigned to a variable, the variable doesn't hold all of the object's data, it only holds a *pointer* to the object's data. The variable holds a memory location (think of it as a pointer to that memory location), and the object data is stored at that memory location.

Polymorphism Java

Polymorphism is the capability of a method do to different things depending on which object it is acting upon.

Pop JavaScript

To remove the item in the last position from an array

Pop

Pop Art General

An art movement in the 1950s that is characterized by pop culture imagery such as celebrities and advertisements.

Postcondition JavaScript

What should be true after the function is called

Postcondition

Postcondition Java

What should be true after a method is called

Postconditions Java

Conditions that must be true after the code segment is executed.

Precondition JavaScript

Assumptions we make about what must be true before the function is called.

Precondition

Precondition Java

Assumptions we make about what must be true before a method is called.

Preconditions Java

Conditions that must be true prior to execution in order for that code segment to behave as expected.

Primitive Type Java

Primitive types are the basic, simple data types that are inherent to Java (int, double, char, and boolean)

Print Python

Displaying text on the screen

Print Python

Print Displaying text on the screen.

println JavaScript

JavaScript function that prints out a line to the user

Privacy Policy General

Legal document outlining how a company can collect and use your data

Privacy policy General

Legal document outlining how a company can collect and use your data

private Java

Restricts access to data and methods to the declaring class.

Procedural Abstraction Java

The ability to use methods and programs that we do not fully understand, or are unable to write.

Programming Style General

The way your code is written is the style. It covers the aspects of the code that goes beyond whether or not it just works.

Programming Style

Protocol General

A widely agreed upon set of rules that standardize communication between machines.

Protocol General

A set of rules or procedures for transmitting data between electronic devices. In order for computers to exchange information, there must be an agreement as to how the information will be structured and how each side will send and receive it.

Protocol JavaScript

A set of rules or procedures for transmitting data between electronic devices. In order for computers to exchange information, there must be an agreement as to how the information will be structured and how each side will send and receive it.

Protocol General

A set of rules or procedures for transmitting data between electronic devices. In order for computers to exchange information, there must be an agreement as to how the information will be structured and how each side will send and receive it.

Prototype General

A model designed to demonstrate the most basic functionality or basic design of a product, sometimes used as a proof of concept

Pseudocode General

Pseudocode is a brief explanation of code in plain English.

Pseudocode

Pseudorandom JavaScript

Not actually random, but appears to be random

public Java

Allows access to data and methods from classes outside the declaring class.

public class MyProgram Java

Class. The name of MyProgram must match the name of the file.

Public domain General

Objects in the public domain are not subject to copyright laws, and thus may be freely used by the general public.

Public Key Encryption General

Public key encryption is a type of asymmetric key encryption. There’s one key that encrypts the information and there is a different key that decrypts the information.

public static void main(String args[]) Java

Main method. Code to be run must be placed within the main method.

Push JavaScript

To add an item to a list or array

Push

Python Python

A widely used programming language that is beginner friendly. Google, YouTube, and CodeHS are among the many companies that use Python to build their products.

Queries General

Let you quickly perform an action on a table in a database like apply changes or retrieve information.

Query General

A question (noun) or to ask a question (verb) - often in relation to a database.

RADIUS General

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) is a client / server protocol and software that enables remote access servers to communicate with a central server to authenticate users and authorize their access to the requested system or service.

Radius JavaScript

The length between the center and edge of a circle

Randomize JavaScript

To generate or select a random object

random, randomizer

Ransomware General

Ransomware is a type cyber attack that threatens to publish the victim's data or block access to it unless a ransom is paid.

Read Like a Story JavaScript

Programs that "Read like a story" have good decomposition and make the code easy to follow.

Read Like a Story

Read Like a Story Java

Programs that “Read like a story” have good decomposition and make the code easy to follow.

readBoolean Java

Java method that lets us read in a true or false value input from the user

readDouble Java

Java method that lets us read in a decimal value input from the user

readFloat JavaScript

Allows for the reading of user input when a float number is used

readFloat

readInt JavaScript

Allows for the reading of user input when an integer is used

readInt

readInt Java

Java method that lets us read in an integer input from the user

readLine JavaScript

Allows for the reading of user input when a string is used

readLine

readLine Java

Java method that lets us read in a line of input from the user as a String

Recursion General

At a high level, recursion is when a function (or method) calls itself.

Recursive Case General

The recursive case is the general form of the recursive problem. In this case the problem needs to be broken down by one step toward the base case, and the algorithm makes a recursive call to itself to solve this slightly smaller problem. This process repeats until the base case is reached.

Redundancy General

When multiple paths exist between two points. This improves reliability and makes the internet fault tolerable. Makes the routing system scalable.

Reference equality Java

Equality operator (==) compares the references (addresses in memory) of 2 objects

Reference Type Java

Reference variables store the address of the value

Relational Operators Java

== , !=. <. > , <=, >= These allow for the comparison or primitive type values. The result of these expressions can be stored as a Boolean value.

Responsive Website HTML

A website in which the parts of the webpage react and possibly reorder or hide when the window changes size

Return Python

Exits a function, optionally passing back an expression to the caller. A `return` statement with no arguments is the same as `return None`.

Return JavaScript

Exit a function and return a value

Return

return Java

Keyword used in methods to return a value back to the initial program that called the method.

return keyword Java

Used to return a value back to the main program from a method.

Return statement Java

The `return` statement exits a method and returns a value.

Return Type Java

Indicates what type value is being returned from the method

Return type Java

A method's return type is the type of value returned from that method.

Return Value JavaScript

The value returned from a function when the function is called.

Return value Java

The value returned from a method.

Reverse-engineerable General

whenever you can work backwards through an algorithm (like a Caesar cipher)

RGB Color Encoding General

The RGB encoding scheme allows us to encode colors such as numeric data. It defines the amount of Red, Green, and Blue light in a pixel.

RGB Encoding General

The RGB encoding scheme allows us to encode colors such as numeric data. It defines the amount of Red, Green, and Blue light in a pixel.

Right Triangle General

A triangle that includes one 90 degree angle.

right(degrees) Python

Command that tells tracy to turn right and in between parentheses, how many degrees to turn right.

Routing General

The process of sending data between two computers on the internet. The data is sent through routers that determine the route.

Row General

One entry in a table. Each row has an ID that is unique to the table.

Row-major Order Java

The ordering of 2D arrays is row-major order, meaning the first index is the row, and the second index is the col. `arr[2][0]` would access the element on the third row and first column.

Runtime error JavaScript

An error that results in a crash when the program is run.

runtime error

Runtime Error Java

An error that happens while the program is running. Even if the code is written with the proper syntax, there are things that can go wrong while the program is running.

Scanner class Java

A class within java.util. It contains code specifically designed to help with user input.

Scanner class Java

A class within java.util. It contains code specifically designed to help with user input.

Scene General

one image in a series of images that make up a GIF

Schema General

How we define what is stored in a table.

Scope General

In what part of the program the variable exits

Scope

Scope Java

Defines which part of the program a variable can be accessed from.

Select General

A statement in SQL that allows you to ask for a row or multiple rows from a table in a database. SELECT * FROM House; (SELECT and FROM are key words, meaning they can’t be used for anything else like table names, column attributes, etc.) * chooses every column in the table; House is the name of the table SELECT name FROM House (returns the House table with only the name column) SELECT name, id FROM House (returns the House table with the name and id columns)

Select General

A statement in SQL that allows you to ask for a row or multiple rows from a table in a database.

Selection General

Using a condition to determine which part of an algorithm is executed.

Selection Sort General

Sorting algorithm that takes an array of values and sorts it. The idea is to have a sorted part of the list and an unsorted part. On each iteration, selection sort finds the lowest value in the unsorted section of the list and adds it to the end of the sorted part.

Selector CSS

Defines which HTML elements a CSS rule applies to.

Semicolon JavaScript

A punctuation marks that looks like `;`

Semicolon

Sentinel JavaScript

A constant that has the specific purpose of being the value that breaks out of a loop.

SENTINEL

Sentinel Java

A constant that has the specific purpose of being the value that breaks out of a loop.

Sequencing General

Sequencing, or sequential execution, is step by step execution of instructions in the order they are given.

Server Application JavaScript

A server computer program or application provides functionality for client programs or devices. So a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities, often called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client.

Server Application General

A server computer program or application provides functionality for client programs or devices. So a single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities, often called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients, or performing computation for a client.

Server Device JavaScript

Examples of servers include web servers, mail servers, and file servers. Each of these servers provide resources to client devices. Most servers have a one-to-many relationship with clients, meaning a single server can provide multiple resources to multiple clients at one time.

Server Device General

Examples of servers include web servers, mail servers, and file servers. Each of these servers provide resources to client devices. Most servers have a one-to-many relationship with clients, meaning a single server can provide multiple resources to multiple clients at one time.

Set JavaScript

A data structure that stores values in no particular order. Each value can only appear once in the set.

Set

Setter Method Java

An instance method that allows the client to **set** the value of an instance variable on an object.

Shadowing Java

If two variables within the same scope have the same name, the variable with the more specific scope will be called.

Short Circuit Evaluation Java

When the result of a logical expression using && or || can be determined by evaluating only the first Boolean operand, the second is not evaluated.

Short Circuit Evaluation General

A short cut when evaluating boolean expressions. If the result can be determined solely by the first part of a boolean expression, the second part is not evaluated, it is skipped.

Single Line Comments Java

//This is a single line comment

Slicing Python

Accessing specific chunks of a string.

Software General

Programs that can be run on a computer

Sort General

To arrange a list of values in order from least to greatest (or greatest to least).

Span HTML

A tag that creates an inline area of content on a webpage that can be manipulated separately from the block it is enclosed in

SQL General

Structured Query Language; Programming language for managing and querying data from a relational database.

SQL General

Structured Query Language; Programming language for managing and querying data from a relational database.

SQL General

Structured Query Language; Programming language for managing and querying data from a relational database.

SQL Injection (SQLi) General

refers to an injection attack wherein an attacker can execute malicious SQL statements (also commonly referred to as a malicious payload) that control a web application's database server (also commonly referred to as a Relational Database Management System – RDBMS).

Start Function JavaScript

This is the function that is called when you click run.

Start Function

State Java

The data that is associated with an object or class.

State Java

The state of an object is all of the object's associated data. It is the *state* that the object is in.

Statement execution count Java

The number of times a statement is executed by the program.

Static method Java

A method called on the Class, rather than on a specific object of the Class.

Static Methods Java

Static methods are the methods in Java that can be called without creating an object of class. Static methods are called using the dot operator along with the class name unless they are defined in the enclosing class.

Static Methods Java

Static methods are the methods in Java that can be called without creating an object of class. Static methods are called using the dot operator along with the class name unless they are defined in the enclosing class.

Static Methods Java

Methods that can be used directly by the class name. They cannot access instance variables or non-static methods.

Static variable Java

A variable or attribute of a class that is shared between **all** instance of a class. Each instance **does not** get their own copy.

Static variables Java

Variables that can be accessed by all objects of a class. They are called using the class name, and can be used in static and non-static methods.

Static Variables Java

Variables that can be accessed by all objects of a class. They are called using the class name, and can be used in static and non-static methods.

Steganography General

The art and science of concealing secret messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows about the existence of the message. In digital information, Steganography is the practice of concealing a file, message, image, or video within another file, message, image, or video.

String JavaScript

A sequence of characters

string

String Java

String is a Java type that represents a string of characters (text)

String Immutability Python

Strings cannot be mutated or changed.

String Indexing Python

Accessing certain characters in a string.

String Literals Java

A sequence of characters enclosed in double quotations “ “.

String Slicing Python

Accessing specific chunks of a string.

String substring(int from) Java

Returns substring(from, length())

String substring(int from, int to) Java

Returns the substring beginning at index from and ending at index to − 1

String(String str) constructor Java

Constructs a new String object that represents the same sequence of characters as str

String(String str) constructor Java

Constructs a new String object that represents the same sequence of characters as str

strip() Python

Python method that returns a copy of the string you call it on, without any whitespace at the beginning or end.

Style Attribute HTML

Allows adding several different types of styles to HTML elements.

Subclass Java

If a class A extends the class B, then A is a subclass of B.

Substring Java

A substring is a smaller sequence of characters in a larger String.

super Java

The `super` keyword lets us reference the superclass when writing code inside of a subclass.

Super Karel General

Super Karel is still Karel, but it knows two new commands: `turnAround()` and `turnRight()`

Superclass Java

If a class A extends the class B, then B is the superclass of A.

SuperKarel General

SuperKarel is like Karel but already knows how to turnRight() and turnAround()

SuperKarel

Symmetric Encryption General

The same key is used to encrypt and decrypt (e.g., Caesar, Vigenere)

Symmetric Encryption General

The same key is used to encrypt and decrypt (e.g., Caesar, Vigenere)

Syntax error JavaScript

An error in the sequence of words or rules in a program that prevents the program from running.

syntax error

System reliability Java

When all programs and code will work as intended.

System.out.print Java

Displays output on the computer monitor.

System.out.print Java

Java method that lets us print output to the user, without ending the line printed.

System.out.println Java

Displays output on the computer monitor and moves cursor to next line.

System.out.println Java

Java method that lets us print out a line of output to the user

Table General

A set of data elements (values) using a model of vertical columns (shown by a name) and horizontal rows (fields), the cell (record) being the unit where a row and column intersect. A table has a specified number of columns by design, but can have any number of rows.

test two General

asdf asdfsadf

The run method Java

The run method is where a Java program begins.

this Java

The `this` keyword is a reference to the current object (the current instance).

this Keyword Java

Makes a call to the current object in a class file. Allows programmers to specify which objects and instance variables should be called.

Timer JavaScript

Timers are used to used perform repeated action in a program

Timer

Tooltip HTML

A small box with extra information about an element that appears when the cursor hovers over the element.

Top Down Design JavaScript

Top down design is a method for breaking our program down into smaller parts.

Top Down Design

Top Down Design Java

Top down design is a method for breaking a problem down into smaller parts.

toString Java

toString is a special method you write in your class that returns a String representation of the object.

toString Method Java

A specific accessor method that returns a String value with information about an object’s instance values. This overrides the object’s inherit toString method when an object is printed using System.out.print or System.out.println

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) General

Allows for sending MULTIPLE packets between two computers. TCP checks that all packets arrived and can be put back in the proper order. The metadata must include a destination IP address, a from IP address, the message size and the packet order number.

Traversing an Array Java

Traversing an array is the process to loop through an array and access each of the elements. Caution must be taken to avoid looping beyond the valid index values.

Tree HTML

The structure of an HTML document

Truncated Y-Axis General

Not starting the y-axis at zero.

Truth Tables Java

A truth table is a table used in logic for comparing Boolean expressions.

Truth Tables Java

A truth table is a table used in logic for comparing Boolean expressions.

Try and Except Python

Programming constructs that can be used to gracefully handle exceptions so that a program can continue in spite of them.

Tuple Python

A heterogenous, immutable data type that stores an ordered sequence of things.

Type Java

The type of a variable defines what kinds of values the variable can hold

Ultra Karel JavaScript

Ultra Karel is the same as Super Karel, except Ultra Karel has the ability to paint the grid world!

Unboxing Java

Reverse of autoboxing; automatic conversion from the wrapper class to the primitive type

Union-based SQLi General

An injection risk where the attacker can add a condition that’s always true, like 1=1, often by appending it to the query to pull up even more in a results set. This fundamentally changes the query and can allow someone to pull the entire contents of the database.

Unpacking Python

Unpack some variables from a list.

upper() Python

Python method that changes letters to uppercase.

URL General

Stands for Uniform Resource Locator. You are locating a resource that exists somewhere on the internet.

Use case General

A particular sequence of actions that a user takes to accomplish a particular task

User Interface (UI) HTML

The tools, visual aids, and other components available to a user in order to interact with a web page or other digital or mechanical device

User-friendly General

An adjective that generally is used to describe a UI that is intuitive to use, easy to navigate, and allows the user to quickly and efficiently complete the desired task

Value (HashMap value) Java

The value is the result you get when you look up a key in a HashMap. It is the value paired with a key.

Variable General

A symbol or container that holds a value.

variable

Variable Java

A symbol or container that holds a value.

Variable Shadowing General

If two variables have the same name, and exist inside of the same scope, the variable with the *more specific* scope takes precedence. This is called shadowing. Local variables and parameters shadow the more general global variables (instance variables).

variable.nextDouble() Java

Allows users to input double values.

variable.nextInt() Java

Allows users to input int values.

variable.nextLine() Java

Allows users to input String values.

Vigenère Cipher JavaScript

An encryption method that uses a series of interwoven Caesar ciphers based on the letters of a keyword

Visibility HTML

An attribute that determines if a particular element can be seen by the viewer of the web page

Visibility Java

Visibility (usually `public` or `private`) defines who has access to something (usually a variable or method). Public means code outside of the class can access, private means only code inside the class can access.

vulnerability General

a weakness which can be exploited by a malicious actor / attacker to perform unauthorized actions within a computer system.

Web components HTML

Standardized widgets on a website that bundle the actual implementation details into reusable elements

Web design General

Designing web page to make it appealing and easy to use for viewers

Web development General

Writing the HTML, CSS, and other code to actually generate a web page

Web page General

A document that can be viewed by a web browser, usually written in HTML

Website General

A collection of related webpages, usually registered under the same domain name

Where General

a clause in SQL that allows you to filter results of s SELECT with certain conditions.

Where General

a clause in SQL that allows you to filter results of s SELECT with certain conditions.

While Loop General

Lets us repeat code as long as something is true.

While Loop

While Loop Python

Lets us repeat code as long as something is true.

White Hat Hacking General

a computer security specialist who breaks into protected systems and networks to test and asses their security

World General

A "world" or "Karel World" is a grid that karel lives in.

karel World

“Has-a” Relationship Java

Objects are defined by having the attributes, or instance variables that they are assigned.